How To Make Paper Yarn

How To Make Paper Yarn

Creating yarn out of alternative materials has become sort of a tradition here at Warped Fibers because I am always looking at ways to upcycle materials and create something unique!

I have also previously discussed weaving with paper as it pertains to paper strips (taking it beyond a “kids” craft.) 

If you are interested in weaving with paper but you are looking to incorporate it into your weaving practice in a more traditional way then creating paper yarn is a great idea. This allows you to create a long thin yarn that you can use as a continuous weft. This yarn can be used just like any other weft yarn and is not limited to any type of loom!

Here are the other alternative yarn tutorials that you can follow:

How to create t-shirt yarn

How to create plastic bag yarn


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What you need


Paper 

Scissors (not fabric scissors!) or a paper cutter

Ruler (if using scissors)

Pencil

A piece of strong scrap yarn (approximately 8 inches) I am using 8/4 cotton rug warp

Water

Drop spindle (I am using a top whorl spindle)

Niddy noddy (optional)


Choosing your paper


yarn for paper yarn

You can use almost any type of paper to create yarn, but the thinner the paper the better. This is because thinner paper will be more pliant and easier to spin.

Some examples of good paper to spin are:

Newspaper

Tissue paper (what I am using in this post)

Paper towels

You could also spin pages from your journals, notebook paper, or really any paper that is not too thick.

Something to keep in mind when choosing your paper for spinning is to pay attention to what is on the back of the paper. This is because when spinning your paper it exposes both the front and the back. 

If you use paper this is heavily pigmented on one side and white on the other it will create a sort of swirled pattern on your yarn. This could be a really great effect that may want to exploit. If you want a paper yarn that is the same throughout, though, then you will want to make sure it is the same color on the front and the back. 

You may also consider changing your colors as you go to create a self-striping yarn or one that creates a gradient as it continues. Both of these options will require different colored paper used in a specific order as you spin.


How to make paper yarn


cutting paper into strips for yarn

It is important to cut your paper into strips first before attempting to spin your yarn. This will make your paper easier to work with as well as keep the finished yarn the same size throughout. 

You can either cut your paper by hand with scissors or use a paper cutter to do this. The paper cutter may be a bit faster and cleaner, but if your strips are not perfectly straight it is not that big of a deal. Just try to keep them relatively consistent and you will be fine!

If you have used a drop spindle before then this process is not all that different from spinning roving into yarn. The general idea is the same.

If you have not used a drop spindle before – no worries! Here is a quick explanation (and a video following that) of how they work so that you can experiment with your paper.

Attach your leader yarn to your drop spindle by tying a double knot around the shaft. Then fold one end of your first paper strip into thirds and tie the other end of your leader yarn to your paper at this spot with a single knot.


spinning paper yarn on drop spindle start

Bring your leader yarn up to the hook by placing it in the notch on the whorl. Your leader yarn and paper should then be hooked into your hook to keep it in place while spinning.

Wet your first paper strip just enough to make it a tiny bit damp. Do not soak your paper or it will just fall apart. If it is not wet enough it will not spin easily or smoothly.

Play around with the amount of water you need to see what will work best. Keep in mind that different papers will also require different amounts of water.

I keep my water for spinning in a small dish or bowl next to me and I usually do this on top of a towel to keep my workspace from getting too wet.


spinning paper yarn on drop spindle

Start to twist your damp paper around your leader yarn to get it started.

Normally (for fibers) you would hold your spinning material and let the drop spindle hang as it spins. Depending on your paper it may not be strong enough to withstand this. If it is then great! If not then you can instead either roll the shaft on your thigh or just keep it low while twisting the spindle manually (this is what I did and you will see it in the video below.)

This twist that is created will follow up your yarn and the paper and apply the twist to your paper. 

Continue to spin your drop spindle as needed until your paper is spun to your liking. Keep the very end of your paper unspun and attach a second strip by placing them together – one on top of the other. Then fold them over each other before continuing to spin so that they “grab” onto each other. Continue spinning and the twist will transfer to the second paper and join them together.

If your paper ever breaks then you can reattach it this same way!

…and yes, your paper will probably break multiple times, but practice helps to keep this to a minimum.


spinning paper yarn -adding a new strip

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Setting your paper yarn


niddy noddy with paper yarn and drop spindle

Once your yarn is finished you have a few different options to set it and make sure it stays together. Essentially you will be applying a bit of tension to your new yarn while it dries to make sure it does not unply itself. 

The easiest way to do this is by hanging it from something and applying a light weight to it. You want to make sure not to use anything too heavy so that it does not rip your new yarn before it is set.

The potential issue with this method is that it can create creases in your yarn, but it is not the end of the world and works if it is your only option.

You could also snugly wrap your yarn around the back of a chair or anything that can keep it tight while it dries. This is also a really inexpensive option but does depend on having a good place to keep the yarn in the meantime.

The traditional option is to use a niddy noddy.

This funnily named tool is the option most used by spinners who are creating a lot of yarn on a regular basis. This tool is specifically made to create a skein of yarn once it is finished setting.



Want to learn how to weave tapestry? It’s more than just imagery (although that can be a big part of it too!) Follow along with this self-paced online course that you can take from anywhere at any time.


Weaving with paper yarn


newspaper yarn and weaving

Using paper yarn for weaving is not that different from weaving with any other yarns. Since it is spun to be one continuous piece of yarn you do not have to start and stop it as you would if using paper strips. 

The biggest thing to keep in mind is that more than likely your paper yarn will only be suitable for weft. 

If you remember from our post on choosing your warp yarn, the warp has to be strong. It is the yarn that is under tension as it sits on your loom. If you use yarn that is not strong enough to hold up to the tension of your loom then it will break and it will probably break often. 

If you do have broken warps then you can fix them! Learn how to fix a broken warp on different looms here. 

Unless your paper yarn is very strong, you will want to designate it as weft only. This will ensure you get the most out of your paper yarn and you are not constantly having to fix broken warps. 


niddy noddy with paper yarn and spinning yarn book

If you are interested in learning more about spinning then I really like The Complete Guide To Spinning Yarn by Brenda Gibson.

This book goes over spinning all types of materials with different spindles and spinning wheels!

Let me know what you are using your spun paper yarn for in the comments.


Warp Finishing: Fringe Options

Warp Finishing: Fringe Options

There are many different ways to finish a weaving. One of the most common and possibly iconic ways to do this is to have fringe at the bottom.

As with most things, though, fringe for your weaving is not always so straightforward!

There are many different options both for how you create your fringe and what your finished fringe will ultimately look like.

You can go really simple with overhand knots at the base of your scarf or as “complicated” as macrame along the edge!

Your ideal warp finishing and fringe options might even depend on the type of weaving you are creating.

Tapestry?

Functional weavings (scarves, rugs)?

These may require different choices for finishing.

… or they may not.


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Warp fringe vs rya knots


The simplest way to have fringe on your weaving is to use the warp “waste” that is already on the weaving. This warp is what is leftover from attaching it to the loom and/or taken up by headers and scaffolding.

If you are planning to utilize this warp yarn for your fringe you will need to be aware of this before you even start weaving. This is because you will need to account for the extra warp when you are setting up your weaving and in your calculations.

Learn more about the weaving process and the order in which you should start your weaving here.

Another thing to keep in mind when using your leftover warp is what color your warp is. This is a given if you are weaving up something that is balanced or pattern woven. These types of weavings show the warp in the actual piece so it is important to the overall aesthetic. 

If you are weaving tapestry, though, then the color of your warp is not always something you need to consider. Since a tapestry is a weft-faced weaving you do not see any warp. That is unless you use some of it for fringe. 

Learn more about what tapestry is here.

If you are looking for a fringe that is full and overflowing, then using your warp waste probably will not be enough. Your fringe will be limited to the amount of warp ends that you have. If weaving tapestry, then these warp ends are usually even fewer since tapestry requires a smaller EPI.

Learn about EPI here.


rya knots tapestry fringe

If the idea of using your warp yarns is not going to give you the fringe of your dreams, you have the option to create new fringe using rya knots.

Learn how to create rya knots here.

Rya knots are great for this because you can use as many strands of yarn as you want for fuller fringe. They also give you the option of using colors that are not in your warp and/ or different colors in the same space.

Rya knots are great for fringe because they also allow you to create really long fringe without using your leftover warp. You do still have to plan for your fringe at the beginning, but you can at least wait until your warp is on and you are ready to start creating.


Fringe variations (twist, braid, macrame)



Sometimes straight fringe is just not what you are going for.

No worries!

There is a wide range of types of fringe that you can create with either your warp waste or rya knots. These are most often done with your warp, though.

These options are great for when you want your fringe to have a little extra “weight” to them. That means they will hang well when on a scarf. They are also good to keep your fringe from getting tangled and matted. 

No matter the option you choose, it is a lot easier to work with your fringe if your weaving is weighed down so it will not move! Something as simple as putting a book on your weaving will keep it in place while you attend to your fringe.


Twisted fringe


scarf fringe and fringe twister warp finishing

Twisted fringe is a really classic option that creates a heavy fringe that will drape well on a scarf.

The twist is also pretty easy to do, if not time-consuming by hand.

One great thing about a twisted fringe is that you have the option to use a fringe twister to make this process go faster and help your twists to be more consistent. Regardless of if you are using a fringe twister or doing it by hand, your general instructions are the same!

I am using the Schacht fringe twister and I love how quick it makes the twisting go! This fringe twister allows you to twist up to 3 bundles of yarn at a time, but you can twist only 2 if you want smaller finished fringe bundles.

You start your twist by taking at least 2 fringe yarns and twisting them together. Do this at least 1 more time, but for larger bundles do it a total of 3 times.

Make sure you twist them all in the same direction! This is important.

Take all 3 of these twisted bundles and then twist them together in the opposite direction.

Tie a knot at the very end and move on to the next bundle! Make sure you twist each bundle the same amount so they are consistent.

Check out the video below to see the fringe twister in action!



If you are using the Schacht fringe twister then attach 2 or more warp yarns to each clip. Try not to cross them over each other when clipping in order to keep it clean when you start to turn the handle.

Turn your handle clockwise.

Count how many times you turn the handle and remember it for the rest of your bundles.

Take all of your twisted yarns off and put them into 1 bundle.

Clip this 1 bundle together and twist counter-clockwise.

Detach and tie!


twisted fringe scarf

Braided fringe


braided fringe scarf

Braiding is another simple way to get bundles of fringe on your weaving. You can either do a simple braid with 3 strands of yarn or double it up. If you want to get real fancy then you can also do multi-strand braids. 

Here is a refresher of how to do a simple 3 strand braid:

Take 3 strands of yarn and separate them. Take 1 of the outer yarns and cross it over the middle yarn.

Then take the other out yarn and cross it over the new middle yarn.

You will keep doing this until your braid reaches the desired length or you run out of yarn!

Tie a knot at the end to keep everything together.


Macrame fringe


macrame fringe scarf

If you are feeling really fancy then you can do macrame at the bottom of your weaving. This will not be individual bundles of fringe, but instead will elongate your weaving with a lace-like texture on the ends. 

I will admit that macrame is not my expertise, but I have been known to do very simple macrame at the end of my weavings on occasion.

You can do this simple macrame technique like this:

You will be using smaller bundles of yarn for this. Make sure they all have a knot at their top at the edge of the weaving to keep your weft in place.

Take 2 small bundles of yarn and tie them together about an inch down from the edge of your weaving.

Move over to the next 2 bundles of yarn and repeat this step all the way across.

On your way back you will then take 1 bundle of yarn from each not and tie those together.

You can do this as many times as you want, just make sure to alternate which bundles you are tieing together to create your lacy “net” fringe!


Side (selvedge) fringe


If you are wanting something a little different then you can create side fringe on your weaving! This is really simple to do if you just ignore one of the main things that I teach.

That is, to weave in your weft tails as you go! Most of the time you want to weave in your weft tails. They can get in the way, and it makes the finishing process a lot easier. 

If you do not weave them in, though, it can be an aesthetic choice.

You can even exaggerate your side fringe by purposefully starting and stopping your weft yarns more often – as much as every single pick of your weaving. This will give you a consistent selvedge of fringe all the way up! 

You could also do some side rya knots every few picks to get some extra fluff on the sides.

Side fringe is not something I see too often, but if done well it could be a really fun addition to your weavings.



Tapestry vs functional weavings (scarves)


twisted fringe scarf and rya fringe tapestry

I already touched on this a little bit earlier, but the type of weaving you are doing may determine the type of fringe you have or at least the decisions you have to make when creating your fringe. 

It is very common to just use the rest of your warp on functional weavings like scarves. That is because there is usually a large number of warps to begin with and you will probably not want something too fluffy at the end of your scarf.

Probably.

You do you.

As for tapestry, adding rya is the most common method for fringe, but if you like the look of using your warp then there is nothing wrong with that!


How To Fix Threading Mistakes: Repair Heddles

How To Fix Threading Mistakes: Repair Heddles

Ideally, when you are warping your floor loom or table loom you will not make any mistakes. 

While mistakes help you learn (the Warped Fibers motto!) avoiding mistakes should still be your goal. 

The best way to avoid threading mistakes (or any mistakes) is to take your time and look over what you have done before moving forward. 

This is really important in many of the steps of warping and weaving, but especially when you are threading your heddles. 



If you are new to using a floor loom or have never used one before here is a little refresher:

On a floor loom (or table loom) your heddles are the metal pieces that are within your harnesses. These heddles will have a hole in the middle of each one that you thread your warp yarn through. The heddles that you choose to thread will depend on the pattern that you are weaving up. 


It is really important to pay attention and double-check yourself as you go when you are doing this step of the warping process. If you do not then if you mess up one heddle it may mess up the sequence of the remaining heddles. 

Threading mistakes are not fun.

If this is the case then there is no shortcut – you must undo all of your warps to the point of the mistake and start over. If you do make a mistake and it only affects a heddle or few then you can fix your threading mistake by using repair heddles. This is most likely if you have doubled up a harness but otherwise continued correctly.


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How to use repair heddles



Depending on the type of repair heddle that you choose to use, they should be easy to install wherever needed. 

Locate the spot and harness that needs your repair heddle and isolate it as best as possible. This usually means pushing the threaded heddles to the side. Since they will all have warp yarns in them this may be harder to do than it sounds, but do your best. 


Here is a little tip: Use a comb to keep your warps out of the way!


repair heddle isolation with comb

Installing your heddle will vary a bit depending on the type of repair heddle you are using, but they should all be pretty simple. Each repair heddle should have an opening at each end that will go around the metal part of your harness.

Re-thread your new repair heddle with the correct warp yarn and finish it off as usual!

For example, if you have a straight draw threading pattern: 1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4 … and you accidentally thread 1,2,2,4,1,2,3,4 then you can un-thread the second “2 heddle” and insert a repair heddle on harness 3. This warp yarn will be threaded on the new repair heddle and you can weave as normal!

It is really that simple.

The hardest part about fixing threading mistakes is finding them before you go too far!


Need help planning your weaving project? Stuck trying to figure out how much yarn you need? What the h&^$ is WPI? Check out my e-book!


Types of repair heddles


No matter the type of heddles you already have on your loom, you can really use any repair heddle you want because they all essentially work the same.

The one that you choose mostly depends on what you can get your hands on and what will fit your loom. Prior to purchasing repair heddles, you will want to measure the height of the metal bars in your harness. Most repair heddles will come in 9.5″, 10.5″, and 12.5″ options.


Wire heddles


wire repair heddles

Wire heddles are thin and usually come in multi-packs.

The multi-packs are really great because you will more than likely want to have more than one on hand at a time just in case. Since they are thin wire, they are generally pretty cost-efficient despite the fact that you buy multiple at once.

These heddles are easy to use because they untwist at the top and bottom which allows you to easily attach them to your harness at any spot that they are needed. Just twist them back together after putting them on your loom!

The wire repair heddles that I have can be found here.

For reference: my Harrisville 8-harness, 10 treadle loom, uses 9.5″ heddles.


Flat heddles


flat repair heddles

Flat heddles are great if you need something really sturdy or you want something that more closely matches your other heddles (assuming you have flat heddles!) 

These heddles do not require any untwisting at the top and the bottom, but instead, they open up and slide into place. This makes them a great option if you have trouble with dexterity or strength in your fingers which could make the wire heddles difficult to use.

These heddles are more expensive and are usually sold individually, but they are sturdier than wire heddles.

You can find these flat repair heddles here.


String heddles


string repair heddles

String heddles are usually a DIY option that can be great if you need something right now and you do not have other options on hand. The downside of a string heddle is that you have to DIY it…

They are not hard to make, but they take more time than if you had metal ones laying around. We will go over how to make them in the next section.

String heddles work the same way any other heddles do and they take up even less space than the other options when they are not being used. 

Even if you have other options ready for when you need them, it is not a bad idea to know how to make string heddles in case you need more and just can not wait for shipping.


How to make a string heddle


String heddles should be made out of strong yarn that is smooth. I like to use the same yarn that I use for tapestry samples: 8/4 cotton rug warp. This yarn is inexpensive and makes a great string heddle option.

You will also want safety pins for your repair heddles to easily install and remove them.

First, measure the height of your harness area that hosts your heddles and double that then add an extra inch. You should have 1 piece of yarn that is just over the same height as your harness (between the bars) when folded in half. This extra yarn will allow for your knots without taking away from the height.

Insert your yarn into the hole at the end of your safety pin. This first safety pin should sit at the fold of your yarn. 


how to make a string repair heddle

how to make a string repair heddle

Using one of your regular heddles as a guide, create a square knot at the bottom of the warp eye.

Create a second square knot at the top of the eye. This is where your warp yarn will be threaded through.

Using square knots creates an opening that is more easily threaded. You can also use overhand knots, but the opening will not stay open.

Learn how to make different weaving knots here.

Insert your heddle string into the hole of your second safety pin. Tie another knot to close up your heddle. Again, use your regular heddle to get this in the right spot.

Cut off any excess yarn.


how to make a string repair heddle

Your string heddle is now ready to use!


fix threading mistakes

You will always want to try to keep your mistakes to a minimum, but it is good to be prepared.

No matter how long you have been weaving and how well you think you double-checked your threading, it is inevitable that you will need to fix threading mistakes with repair heddles sooner or later. 

Either having them on hand or knowing how to make them, will make sure that a missing thread does not bring your weaving to a halt.


How To Fix A Broken Warp On Any Loom

How To Fix A Broken Warp On Any Loom

What is the worst thing that can happen while you are weaving?

Depending on who you ask, the answer may be “a broken warp”.

While this is not an ideal thing to have to deal with, it is not the end of the world! A small setback – yes, but something that is actually very easy to deal with once you know how to do it!

One of my favorite things about weaving is how easy it can be to fix any mistakes that you make and issues that come up. 

Regardless of the type of loom you are using, your fixed warp will be just as simple to weave with as your previous warp was. You may end up having 2 extra tails to deal with when your weaving is off the loom, but in the grand scheme of things – this is doable.

I believe in you!


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Why your warp is breaking


Luckily, with a bit of forethought, a broken warp should not be a regular occurrence. Sometimes they do happen though and these are a few reasons why:

  • Getting twisted in your heddles – make sure to double-check your threading as you go. It is important to make sure your warp is going through the heddles straight or it adds stress on the yarn.
  • Too much friction in reed – if your warp is too thick or there is just too much stress on your yarn (selvedges pulling in a lot) then the reed may be putting friction on it.
  • Accidently cutting it when you mean to cut weft – oops! 
  • Picked the wrong warp – Warp yarns should be strong! If you are trying to use yarns that do not meet the strength test then they will be more likely to break. While a broken warp here and there is not something to get too worried about – having yarn that is unsuitable for warp will make trying to weave with it an uphill battle. Do yourself a favor and do not choose yarn that is not strong enough for the job. Learn more about picking the right warp yarn here.

If you are not sure why your warp is breaking then try to see where it is breaking. This can help you determine the problem.


Fixing a broken warp on a simple frame loom


broken warp on simple frame loom

What you need: extra warp yarn

One of the best things about a simple frame loom is just how simple it is! That even extends to fixing a broken warp. 

Learn more about simple frame looms here.

This method is best for when you do not have a lot woven. If you have already woven a lot then you can follow the instructions in the next section for the notched loom where we do not completely replace the warp.

The first thing you will want to do when you have a broken warp is to tie off the top of the warp yarn to the frame to keep your tension even. This is important because your warp is one continuous piece of yarn. A simple square knot will be fine for this.

Learn more about weaving knots here.

Cut a piece of yarn to be your replacement warp. This warp yarn will need to be longer than the height of your weaving so that you have enough yarn to tie it to the frame. The amount extra will depend on the frame you are using and how much yarn you personally need to tie a knot.

Next: tie this new warp yarn to the bottom of the frame in the same spot as the broken warp.


new warp on a simple frame loom

Then with your tapestry needle, follow the warp channel (include your scaffolding with this) and up through your weaving. Be careful not to pierce the weft yarns on the front or the back of your weaving!

Take this new warp yarn and tie it to the top of your frame, again make sure to go through your scaffolding. This will be next to your original tied warp. 


fix broken warp

Once your new warp is in place you can remove the old warp from your weaving and tie it to the bottom of your frame. This will keep the tension of your weaving.

Done! Keep weaving like nothing ever happened.


tie on broken warp on simple frame loom

Fixing a broken warp on a notched frame loom


broken warp on notched frame loom

What you need: extra warp yarn

Fixing a broken warp yarn on a notched frame loom is essentially the exact same as fixing a broken warp yarn on a simple frame loom. This is because neither one of them has an advancing warp. These smaller weavings are easier to fix because you can just tie a new warp yarn onto your frame in place of the broken one. 

The same options also apply. If your woven area is small then I recommend a full replacement, and if your woven area is large then your broken warp yarn should stay in place with the new warp yarn overlapping and taking over for the rest of the weaving.

The size of the woven area in these photos is small enough that I could have done a full replacement, but I opted for an overlapped warp for the sake of this post.


tie on broken warp to frame loom

If you are overlapping your warp then instead of weaving up the entire warp channel, you would instead weave into your scaffolding and then float the warp on the back of the weaving until a few inches below the top of your woven area. Then weave up the remaining few inches of your warp channel and tie your new warp to the top of the loom. 

This is much simpler than trying to weave up the warp channel of a large weaving but it still anchors the warp in place for easy weaving.


broken warp float on weaving

Your old warp yarn will stay in place and your new warp yarn will overlap it by a few wefts. The friction of the weft on the broken warp will keep the tension intact for the remainder of the weaving.

The pictures show the warp floating on the front of the weaving because it is easier to fix this way, but you will want to push these tails to the back of the weaving when you are finishing it. This will make it look cleaner.


fixing a broken warp on a notched frame loom

Once the weaving is finished and off the loom you can weave the broken warp and the new warp back into the weaving. Pull the new warp from the scaffolding to free it to be woven in. This is done in the same way as you would weave in your weft tails.

Learn how to weave in your weft tails here.

You can find the notched loom I am using here.



Fixing a broken warp on a rigid heddle and floor loom



What you need: extra warp yarn, t-pins, weights, something to hold your extra warp

Fixing a broken warp on a rigid heddle loom and a floor loom (and also a table loom!) is basically the same because the warp mechanics are very similar.

The biggest difference will be in the weights and types of weights you will be able to use since floor looms are much taller than their rigid heddle and table counterparts. It is possible you can use similar weights, but you will have to play around with the right options to maintain the right tension on your warp.

The first thing you need to do for a broken warp on an advancing warp loom is to measure out a new warp yarn to replace the broken one. I always like to make notes on my weavings for occasions like these. That way I know exactly how long my replacement warp yarn should be.


Re-sleying a broken warp on a rigid heddle loom

Take this warp over to your loom and tie a small square knot at one end.

Insert your t-pin into this knot and insert your t-pin into your weaving a few inches below where your woven area has stopped. Be careful when inserting your t-pin into your weaving that you do not pierce your weaving. Also, I recommend putting the tip of the pin toward the back of your weaving so you do not pierce yourself…

Next, you will re-sley your reed or your rigid heddle with your new warp yarn. If using a floor or table loom you will need to also re-thread your heddle.

The remainder of your yarn can be wrapped around a weight and left to hang from the back of your weaving.

If you have old film canisters or pill bottles these work really well to contain the remainder of your warp so it is not dragging on the ground.


broken warp with weight

broken warp with weight

The weight that you choose will depend on the amount of tension that you need. Fishing weights are really good options because they are small and heavy, but you can use anything that is easy to get your hands on!

You will need to let out the extra warp as you keep weaving and moving your warp forward. Just think of this as a way to make sure you get up and stretch occasionally!


fixing a broken warp on a rigid heddle or floor loom

Your new warp will weave in seamlessly and beyond letting out some warp from the weight occasionally, your weaving experience will be the same.

Once your weaving is finished you can take it off your loom as usual.

To start your finishing process: remove your t-pin or straight pin and untie your square knot. You will finish this the same way as any other broken warp. Weave in your broken and new warp up and down the warp channels. It is ok if your new warp tail is on the shorter side, weave it in anyway. It will be overlapping your old warp so everything should stay in place.

This works even if you have a balanced weaving and you can see the warps. I have circled where the warps overlap in the picture below.

Barely noticeable!

The Schacht Flip folding rigid heddle loom I am using can be found here.


fixing a broken warp overlapping warp

When a warp breaks it can be easy to stress out and get discouraged. Luckily, if you follow any of the steps above then it should not be any more than a few minutes of extra time added to your weaving!


Warp Replacement and Shaped Weavings

Warp Replacement and Shaped Weavings

Not to be confused with weaving shapes – shaped weavings are standalone weavings that are not confined to the more traditional 90-degree angles.

This is not the first we have talked about shaped weavings at Warped Fibers, but it is time to take a deep dive into weavings that go outside the “box”.


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First, (do I even need to say this?) there is nothing wrong with traditional weavings with right angles, but sometimes you want something different. Sometimes creating a shape with your weaving will better bring justice to your vision and ideas.

Shaped weavings can take many different forms (both in the finished product and how they are made.)

If you are interested in weaving shapes then make sure to check out my e-book!



Placeholders


placeholder for shaped weavings

One of the simplest ways to create a weaving that is not completely (or even a little bit) square is with the use of placeholders.

I first mentioned the use of placeholders in my post on weaving rules to break and again in my post on creating a 3-dimensional woven gift box. 

I thought it was time, though, that we take some time to really focus on what these placeholders are, how they work, and the different ways you can use them. 


drawing on your warp for shaped weavings

First, placeholders are anything that you can use to take up negative space in your weaving. Normally, you never want to weave with negative space below your weaving area. If you try to weave on top of open negative space then your weaving will constantly be wanting to fill in that space. With every beat of your weft you will have to nudge or move the wefts back into place. 

This can get a little old in a short amount of time.

Placeholders give you something to beat against which not only makes weaving faster (you are not constantly fixing it) but also easier because you can be less careful with the force of your beat. 



These placeholders can be either straight or shaped depending on what you are wanting to create.

When it comes to inserting your placeholders it is as easy as just weaving them into your warp in plain weave.

Over, Under, Repeat.

This will keep them in place and ensure your weft can easily be woven on top of it. Make sure they also extend past your selvedges so that they stay in place better. 

When choosing shaped weaving placeholders you will want to choose something that is rigid, but also flexible. My favorite thing to use for this is cardstock. It is easy to cut into any shape you want, flexible enough to be woven into your weaving, but it also holds up to the beating of your weft. 

If you are using a floor loom or any loom that utilizes an advancing warp, you will want to break up your placeholders into strips if they are large. This will allow them to more easily wrap around your front and cloth beams. I did something similar to this in my post on getting multiple weavings out of one warp.

Depending on the shape of your placeholder you may need to cut it out if you are planning on warp replacement (coming up!) If you are going to finish it normally by cutting your warp off your loom then you can skip this step.


removing placeholder for shaped weavings

Shaped looms


Shaped looms are also a good way to create shaped weavings because they take some of the extra work out of using extra materials. No extra warp here!

The biggest downside to using shaped looms is that you may need to have extra looms around.

Ok, maybe this is not a downside, but it could be an obstacle.

Shaped looms could be as simple as a large triangular loom to weave up a shawl to a more complex solution of nails on wood in the shape that you want to weave.

When creating a shaped weaving loom I recommend using finishing nails like these that have very small heads. This will make it easier to remove your weaving when it is finished!

Keep in mind that every shape will not work for this type of weaving.

Experiment and have fun with it!


Want to learn how to weave tapestry? It’s more than just imagery (although that can be a big part of it too!) Follow along with this self-paced online course that you can take from anywhere at any time.


Warp replacement


finished tapestry with warp replacement

Sometimes you may want to weave an irregular shape on a regular loom and there is a way to do this that allows you to create clean selvedges all the way around!

That technique is called warp replacement and requires you to weave up your shape normally at first. That means warping up a frame loom or other loom the traditional way. You may want to utilize one of the techniques we talked about earlier (specifically placeholders) to make the weaving a little easier. This will make sure the weft does not start sliding down the warp. 

Once you are finished with your weaving you have two options for your warp replacement.

  1. You can replace the warp while your weaving is still under tension
  2. Replace the warp once the weaving is off the loom

Regardless of what options you choose, the actual replacement of the warp goes the same! That being said, I think doing this while under tension makes it easier because you do not have to worry about the weft moving.

Start out with a warp yarn that is the same or thinner than the current warp. This warp will then be put on a tapestry needle and go down one of the selvedge warp channels that you have created. When you get all the way through that warp channel move over a warp channel and go up that one. Continue all the way across your weaving!

An extra-long tapestry needle can be really helpful when doing warp replacement. It is not necessary, but I will take just about anything to make things easier!


weaving warp replacement tutorial

warp replacement tutorial

This will create a small area of visible warp just on the selvedges of your weaving. Keep this in mind when choosing your new warp. You can choose a warp that is similar in color to your weft so that it blends in or one that contrasts the weft if you want it to stand out.

As you make your way up and down your warp channels make sure that you are not piercing the front of the back of the weaving. I recommend turning your weaving over and over as you go to avoid warp floats!


weaving warp replacement tutorial

warp replacement tutorial

Once you have gone across the entire weaving you can cut it off your loom and pull out your old warp! This sounds a bit scary! I know! If you did it correctly, though, the new warp should hold everything in place and the old warp should come out with no issue.

It is actually pretty satisfying!



Lastly, you will take the ends of your replacement warp and weave them into your weaving to finish it off. 

Now you have a shaped weaving with smooth selvedges!

You can also use this technique if you have small areas on the inside of your weaving where you would have exposed warp. The warp replacement does not have to go over the entire weaving.

Do not forget to weave in your weft tails as well. This will give you a nice smooth weaving!


finished warp replacement front and back

What to do with shaped weavings


Beyond just creating shaped weavings for the sake of art, you can also use your shaped weavings for other things!

Large shaped weavings (triangles) for shawls.

Small shaped weavings for patches or pins.

Shaped weavings are a great way to move outside the traditional squared-off format of tapestries. No matter what you want to weave, there are different ways to create the shapes that you want. Do you like to weave up shapes? Let me know in the comments!


Using Pick-Up Patterns On Your Rigid Heddle Loom

Using Pick-Up Patterns On Your Rigid Heddle Loom

Starting out with rigid heddle weaving usually involves different types of plain weave patterns.

Let’s get this straight first: there is absolutely nothing wrong with plain weave! Balanced plain weavings can be incredibly beautiful, interesting, and dynamic. 

Check out my post on how to weave patterns in plain weave with color here.

Sometimes, though, you want a little bit more.

While some rigid heddle looms have the ability to have an extra heddle – that may not be something you are ready to do yet. Either because purchasing a new heddle is currently cost-prohibitive, or because you are looking for a simpler option that still creates interesting results. 

That is where pick-up patterns come into play!


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What is pick-up rigid heddle weaving?


scarf weaving in progress with pick-up pattern


Pick-up rigid heddle weaving is a technique that essentially adds the functionality of an extra heddle to your loom without actually adding an extra heddle. It also allows you to easily weave floats into your weaving.

Floats?

If you missed my post on adding floats to your weaving (by hand) then make sure to look through this post here.

Floats are areas of yarn that sit over the top of more than one yarn. You can have both warp and weft floats depending on the pattern you are following. These floats can add visual interest to your weaving as well as possibly giving it a gauzy or lacy look.

Keep in mind that your pick-up weaving could probably look very different after it is washed – depending on the materials you use. Below is an image of the same weaving after it has been washed and dried. This scarf is made of 100% wool so washing it really brings out the character of this type of weaving.


pick-up scarf washed

What you need to weave pick-up patterns


pick-up stick options for weaving

Weaving pick-up patterns on your rigid heddle loom requires very few supplies to make the magic happen. It is really only one extra tool than you would need if you were weaving regular plain weave.

A pick-up stick.

Dedicated pick-up sticks are great because they are made with a tapered end to more easily pick up the warps that need to be separated. They also have rounded smooth sides that make sliding it through your warp and turning it into a smooth movement. This means you do not have to worry about friction abrading your warp yarns.

If you are looking to get started without getting a pick-up stick then you can also use a ruler or a flat shuttle as your pick-up stick. (I am using a flat shuttle in these images because my pick-up stick was not long enough for my 10-inch weaving.)

Keep in mind that you have to be careful with rulers since they are usually “sharp” on their sides. Using a ruler with fragile yarns could lead to a broken warp!

I have also been known to use some very sturdy mat board as my pick-up stick. It is absolutely ok to use whatever you have on hand.

Not surprisingly, you will also need a rigid heddle loom and some yarn!

The rigid heddle loom I am using is my Schacht Flip Folding Rigid Heddle Loom.

You can read my review on the Schacht here.

You can read about purchasing yarn online here or check out my favorite yarns here!


Need help planning your weaving project? Stuck trying to figure out how much yarn you need? What the h&^$ is WPI? Check out my e-book!


How to read pick-up instructions


When you are looking for pick-up patterns there are a few instructions that will come up. 

Up, Down, pick-up stick, up and pick-up stick.

Up and down are pretty self-explanatory, but we will touch on them quickly anyway. Whenever you see up or down in your pattern you will be placing your heddle in either the up or down position on your loom. 

When you see “pick-up stick” in your pattern you will move it up to right behind your heddle while it is in the neutral position. Then you will rotate your pick-up stick 90 degrees so that it creates a shed. After you are done you can then slide your pick-up stick towards the back of the loom. This is where your pick-up stick will live when it is not in use so that it does not affect the rest of your weaving.


pick-up stick for rigid heddle loom

“Up and pick-up stick” means that your heddle will be in the up position and the pick-up stick will be moved towards the back of the heddle while still laying flat against the warp. This will make it so the shed has both the up warps and the pick-up stick warps in a position to be woven under.

You can notice the difference in the warps that are being woven if you look at the right side of each image. This is the same pick-up stick just in different positions. The up and pick-up stick pattern will have a lot more warps on the surface and a lot less on the underside than the other positions.


up & pick-up stick for rigid heddle loom

Setting up your pick-up stick pattern on your rigid heddle loom


pick-up stick for rigid heddle loom set-up

The most important thing to know about setting up your pick-up stick is that your heddle must be in the down position.

A reminder of your rigid heddle “anatomy”: your heddle has 2 areas for your warps to go. You have slots and eyes (holes) which are what allow you to create a shed as they move in the up or down position. The warps in the eyes are physically moved up and down as the heddle moves.

Setting up your pick-up stick in your down position is important because the slot yarns are freer to move around. This allows the down position to put the slot warps on top. These free-moving warps, therefore, are perfect for manipulating and creating patterns.

The above pattern shows 6 up, 2 down, 5 up, repeat. Ending in 6 up. This is half of the pattern that you can see in the first image of the post (red and white scarf!) and it is a variation on a pattern I found in the book Inventive Weaving On A Little Loom by Syne Mitchell.

You can read my review on this rigid heddle weaving book here.

Tip: If you are having a hard time seeing your warps to set up your pick-up stick then you can slide a piece of paper into your shed. This will make it so the warps underneath are not visually interfering while you set up.


Let’s take a look at a pick-up pattern example.


Over 2 Under 2

Up

Pick-Up Stick

Up 

Pick-Up Stick

Down

Repeat

In this pattern, you would put your heddle in the down position and weave in your pick-up stick in an over 2, under 2 pattern. 

Then you would follow the directions – remembering that “pick-up stick” requires the heddle to be in the neutral position and the pick-up stick turned 90 degrees to make a shed. 


Make a pick-up sampler


pick-up stick weaving sampler

When you are new to pretty much anything with weaving it is a really good idea to make some samples.

You may even remember the entire post I did about the importance of making weaving samples.

One of the best ways to really understand how to make a pick-up weaving on your rigid heddle loom is to keep trying different patterns and making sure you keep a record of what you are doing. You do not want to accidentally come across a pattern you really like and then not know how to recreate it later!

I did this…

I recommend trying out at least a few inches of each pattern to really be able to see how it will turn out on a larger scale. When you take it off the loom, you will also be able to clearly see how the back looks compared to the front. If there is weft floats on the front of the weaving then there will be warp floats on the back.

You can also add a plain weave border on each side by starting and ending your pattern with more “up” warps. Taking our earlier pattern as an example – if we want to add a border we could change it to: over 6, under 2, over 2, repeat, and end in over 6.

This can give your weaving a really clean look, but make sure try it out first in a sampler to see if you like it.

Let me know what types of pick-up patterns you have been working on!


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